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Networking Terms

Networking Terms.

There are hundreds of words, phrases, and Networking Terms, which are used in the networking world. Here is a list of most common networking terms.

Networking Terms

let’s start Networking Terms one by one.

·                 Aloha. A medium access control technique for multiple access transmission media. A station transmits whenever it has data to send. Unacknowledged transmissions are repeated.

·                 Amplitude. The size or magnitude of a voltage or current waveform.

·                 Amplitude modulation. A form of modulation in which the amplitude of a carrier wave is varied in accordance with some characteristic of modulation signal.

·                 Amplitude Shift keying. Modulation in which the two binary values are represented by two different amplitudes of the carrier frequency.

·                 Attenuation. Current decrease in magnitude,

·                 or power of a signal in transmission between points.

·                 Automatic repeat request. A feature that automatically initiates a request for transmission when an error in transmission is detected.

·                 Analog repeater. Analog repeater is used to restore analog signal.

·                 Band limited signal. A signal all of whose energy is contained within a finite frequency range.

·                 Bandwidth. The difference between the limiting frequencies of a continuous frequency spectrum .

·                 Baseband. Transmission of signals without modulation. In a Baseband local network, digital signal (1’sand 0’s) are inserted directly onto the cable as voltage pulses. The entire spectrum of the cable is consumed by the signal. This scheme does note allow frequency division multiplexing.

·                 Baud. The number of pulses per second as unit called a baud.

·                 Bit stuffing. The  insertion of extra bits into a data stream to avoid the appearance of unintended control sequences.

·                 Bridge. A device that links two homogeneous packet broadcast local networks. It accepts all packets from each network addressed to decides on the other buffers them, and retransmits them to the other network.

·                 Broadband. The use of coaxial cable for providing data transfer by means of analog (radio frequency) signals. Digital signals are passed through a modem and transmitted over one of the frequency bands of the cable.

·                 Bus. One or more conductors that serve as a common connection for a related group of devices.

·                 Carrier. A continuous frequency capable of being modulated or impressed with a second (information carrying) signal.

·                 Channel. A transmission link is called a channel.

·                 Checksum. An error detecting code based on a summation operation performed on the bits to be checked.

·                 Circuit switching. A method of communicating in which a devoted communications track is recognized between two devices through one or more intermediate switching nodes. The telephone system uses circuit switching.

·                 Code. Encoder Decoder. Transforms analog data into digital bit stream encoder, and digital signals into analog data (decoder).

·                 Collision. A condition in which two packets are being transmitted over a medium at the same time. Their interference makes both unintelligible.

·                 Common Carrier. In the United States, companies that furnish communication services to the public. The usual connotation is for long distance telecommunications services. Common carriers are subject to regulation by federal and state regulatory commissions.

·                 Common channels signaling. Technique in which network control signals (e.g. call request) are separated from the associated voice or data path by placing the signaling from a group of voice or data paths on a separated channel dedicated to signaling only.

·                 Communications architecture. The hardware and software structure that implements the communications function.

·                 Communications network. A collection of interconnected functional units that provides a data communications service among stations attached to the network.

·                 Communications data transfer. A protocol for exchanging data in an unplanned fashion and without prior coordination (e.g. datagram).

·                 Connection oriented data transfer. A protocol for exchanging data in which a logical connection is established between the endpoints (e.g. virtual circuit).

·                 Contention. The condition when two  or more stations attempt to use the same channels at the same time,

·                 Crosstalk. The spectacle in which a signal communicated on one circuit or channel.

·                 CSMA. Carrier Sense Multiple Access. A medium access control technique for multiple access transmission media. A station wishing to transmit first senses the medium and transmits only if the medium is idle.

·                 CSMA/CD. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection. A enhancement of CSMA in which a station ceases transmission if it senses a collision.

·                 Current Mode transmission. A transmission mode in which the transmitter alternately applies current to each of two conductors in a twisted pair to represent logic 1 or 0. The total current is constant and always n the same direction.

·                 Cyclic redundancy check. An error detecting code in which the code is the remainder resulting from dividing the bits to be checked by a predetermined binary number.

·                 Datagram. IN pack switching, a self-contained packet of other packets, that does not require acknowledgment, and that carries information sufficient for routing from the originating data terminal equipment (DE), without relying on earlier exchanges between the Des and the network.

·                 Data terminal equipment (DE). Equipment consisting of digital end instruments that convert the user information into data signals for transmission. Or reconvert the received data signal into user information.

·                 Differential encoding. A means of encoding digital data on a digital signal such that the binary value is determined by a signal change rather than a signal level.

·                 Digital private branch exchange. A local network based on the private branch exchange (PBX) architecture. Provides an integrated voice data switching service.

·                 Digitize. To convert an analog signal to a digital signal.

·                 Digital repeater. Digital repeater us used to restore digital signal.

·                 Encapsulation. The addition of control information by a protocol entity to data obtained from a protocol user.

·                 Error rate. The ratio of the number of data units in error to the total number of data unit.

·                 Fast select. An option of the  X.25 virtual call that allows the inclusion of data in the cell setup and cell clearing packets.

·                 Flow control. The function performed by a receiving entity to limit the amount or rate of data that is sent by a transmitting entity.

·                 Frame check sequence. An error-detecting code inserted as field in a block of data to be transmitted. The dude server to check for errors upon reception of the data.

·                 Frequency. Rate of signal oscillation in hertz.

·                 Frequency-division multiplexing. The separation of a transmission ability into two or more channels by splitting the frequency band transmitted by the facility into narrower bands, each of which is used to constitute a distinct channel.

·                 Frequency modulation. Modulation in which the frequency of an alternating current is the characteristic varied.

·                 Gateway. A device that connects two systems, especially if the systems use different protocols. For example, a gateway is needed to connect two independent local networks, or to connect a local network to a long-haul network.

·                 HDLC (high level data link control). A very common bit-oriented data link protocol (OSI layer 2) issued by ISO. Similar protocols are ADCCP; LAP (B), and SDLC.

·                 Impulse noise. A high amplitude, short duration noise pulse.

·                 Integrated services digital network. A planned worldwide telecommunication service that will  use digital transmission and switching technology to support voice and digital data communication.

·                 Microwave. Electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of  about  2 to 40 GHz.

·                 Modem. Modulator/Demodulator. Transforms a digital bit stream into an analog signal (modulator), and vice versa (demodulator).

·                 Modulation. The process, of varying certain characteristics of a signal, called a carrier, in accordance with a message signal.

·                 Multi-unit. A configuration in which more than two stations share a transmission path.

·                 Noise. Unwanted signals that combine with and hence distort the signal intended for transmission and reception.

·                 Non return to zero. A digital signaling technique in which the signal is at a constant level for the duration of a bit time.

·                 Optical fiber. A thin filament of glass or other transparent material through which a signal encoded light beam may be transmitted by means of total internal reflection.

·                 Packet switching. A method of transmitting messages through a communication network. In which long messages are subdivided into short packets. The packets are then transmitted as in message switching Usually, packet switching is more efficient and rapid than message switching.

·                 Parity bit. A check bit appended to an array of binary digit to make the sum of all the binary digits, parity bits is always odd or always even.

·                 Phase. The relative position in time within a single period of a signal.

·                 Phase modulation. Modulation in which the phase angle of a carrier is the characteristic varied.

·                 Piggybacking. The inclusion of an acknowledgement to a previously received packet in an outgoing data packet.

·                 Point to point. A configuration in which two stations share a transmission path.

·                 Poll and select. The process by which a primary station invites secondary stations, one at a time, to transmit (poll), and by which a primary station requests that secondary receive data (select).

·                 Protocol. A set of rules that govern the operation of functional units to achieve communication.

·                 Pulse code modulation. A process in which a signal is sampled, and the magnitude of each sample with respect to a fixed reference is quantified and converted by coding to a digital signal.

·                 Residual error rate.  The error rate remaining after attempts at correction are made.

·                 Ring. A local network topology in which stations are attached to repeaters connected in a closed loop. Data are transmitted one direction around the ring, and can be added by all attached stations.

·                 RS-232(C). A physical layer interface standard for the interconnection of equipment, established by EPA.

·                 Service access point. A means of identifying a user of the services of a protocol entity. A protocol entity provides one or more SAPs for use by higher-level entities.

·                 Sliding. Window technique. A method of flow control in which transmitting station may send numbered packets within a windows of numbers .The windows changes dynamically to allow additional packets to be sent

·                 Star. A topology in which all stations are connected to a central switch. Two stations communicate via circuit switching.

·                 Statistical time division multiplexing. A  method of TDB in which time slots on a shared transmission line are allocated to I/O channels on demand.

·                 Stop and wait. A flow control protocol in which the sender transmits a block of data and then awaits an acknowledgement before transmitting the next block.

·                 Telemetric. User oriented information services, Includes Teeth. Video  tax , and facsimile.

·                 Teletex. A text communications Severs that provides message preparation and transmission facilities.

·                 Teletext. A one way information retrieval service. A fixed number of information pages are repetitively broadcast on unused portions of a TV channel bandwidth. A decoder at the TV set is used to select and display pages.

·                 Thermal noise. Statistically uniform noise due to the temperature of the transmission medium.

·                 Time division multiplexing. The division of a transmission facility into two or more channels by allotting the facility to several different information channels. One at a time.

·                 Token bus. A medium access control technique for bus/tree. Stations form a logical ring, around which a token is passed. A station receiving the token may transmit data and then must pass the token on to the next station in the ring.

·                 Token ring. A medium access control technique for rings. A token circulates around the ring. A station may transmit by seizing the token, inserting a packet onto the ring. And then retranslating the token.

·                 Topology.  The structure, consisting of paths and switches, that provides the communications interconnection among nodes of a network.

·                 Tree. A local network topology in which stations are attached to a shared transmission medium. The transmission medium is a branching cable emanating from a headed, with no closed circuits. Transmissions propagate throughout all branches of the tree , and are received by all stations .

·                 Twisted pair. A transmission medium consisting of Two insulated wires arranged in a regular spiral pattern.

·                 Unbalanced transmission. A transmission mode in which signals are transmitted on a single conductor . Transmitter and receiver share a common ground .

·                 Value– added network. A privately owned packet switched network whose services are sold to the public.

·                 Videotext. A two way information retrieval service accessible to terminals and TV sets equipped with a special decoder. Pages of information at a central resource are retrieved interactively over a switched telephone line connection. All packets follow the same route, need not carry a complete address, and arrive in sequence.

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My Name Mohammad Ramzan Bhutto. Live in District Jacobabad, Sindh, Pakistan. I have started blogging on Information Technology, my selected areas are Online Business, Digital Marketing, Make Money Online.