An Introduction of Computer Programming Languages.
We know, a language is a medium of communication among the people, they can talk to each other, give instructions to do a job. Some way, computer languages are used to give instructions to computer systems to perform different data processing operations. Computer Programming Languages allow programmers and end user to develop the programs (set of instructions) that executed by a computer.
Every programming language contains some basic types of instructions to define date types and their specifications, perform the input/output, arithmetic and logic operations, and controlling to perform different operations.
Several hundred different Computer Programming Languages have been developed, each with its own unique vocabulary, vocabulary, grammar, and uses Computer Programming Languages can be grouped as:
These languages are also categorized into different generations:
- First generation.
- Second generation.
- Third generation.
- Fourth generation.
- Fifth generation.
Low-level languages or the machine-oriented languages are easily understandable by the machine. They are difficult for humans to understand as they are in coded forms. These codes represent data and instructions. First two generations are included in low-level languages.
First Generation Languages.
- First-generation languages, also called machine languages are the most basic level Computer Programming Languages All program instructions had to be written in 1 s and 0s. these languages were exceptional to each computer.
- Machine language programming required the full information of inner operations of the specific type of CPU they are using. To accomplish even the simple processing tasks, a long series of detailed instructions are written.
Second Generation Languages.
- Second Generation languages, also known as Assembly languages are easier than the machine languages. Assembler languages are frequently called symbolic languages because convenient alphabetic abbreviation called mnemonics (memory aids; and other symbols are used to represent operation codes, storage location, and data elements. The use of assembler languages requires, a language translator program called assembler, which allows a computer to convert the instructions of such languages into machine languages instructions.
High-level languages are also called human oriented languages because statements closely resemble human language statement. They are easily understandable by the human beings, as these languages use English language words. The statements of High-level languages resemble the phrases or mathematical expression required to prompt the problem or technique being programmed. The syntax (vocabulary, punctuation, and grammatical rules), and the semantics (meaning) of such statements don’t reflect the internal code of any particular computer.
Most high-level languages are machine independent, so programs written in high-level languages can be run on different machines. Programs written in high-level languages are translated into machine languages before execution. This translation is done by languages translator programs.
Third Generation Languages.
Third generation languages are sometimes referred to as procedural languages .programme coding in a 3rd Gl is a lengthy and difficult job, because the programmer has to take care of every operation being performed by the machine.
He needs to define what to do and how to do instructions written are called macro instruction Some of the major 3rd GL are:
- BASIC-Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
- COBOL-Common Business Oriented Language.
- FORTRAN-FORmula TRANslator.
- PL/1-Programming Language one.
- RPG-Report Program Generator.
- ALGOL-ALGorithmic language.
- SNOBOL-String Oriented sysmBOlic Language.
- Modula 2.
Fourth Generation Language.
Fourth generator languages are non-procedural and conversational than prior languages.program coding is easier because her programmer tells the system what to do without mentioning how to do it .programmers no longer have to spend a lot of time developing the programs.
Mostly the GL are database oriented languages.They offer facilities like data description language (DDL), data manipulation language (DML), structured query langue (SQL) form generators, report generators and application generators and other tools to speed up the development work famous 4GLs include:
- Fox pro.
All languages supporting visual development.
Fifth Generation Languages.
Fifth-generation languages or natural languages are in development phase. These kinds of Computer Programming Languages will be used to develop artificial intelligence into computer systems. These languages would be like the human languages, in which vocabulary is very vast and any of these words can be used for communication. This capability is being developed in computers and chances are bright to communication with the machine as we communicate with other human beings.
- Object-Oriented Languages.
Object-oriented is a technique based on the concept in which data and actions are bundled as objects. Most of the Computer Programming Languages separate data elements from the procedures and actions, thus an object consists of data and the actions that can be performed upon the data. Once, objects are performed upon them.OOP languages lie them together into objects, thus an object consists of data and the actions that can be performed upon the data once objects are programmed, they are reusable. Object oriented languages have become a major consideration in software development Actor, small talk, objective c, and c ++ are easier to use and more efficient for programming (OOP) languages are in use since the 1960s.