# Computer History

In this article, we will learn about Computer history. Where will discuss from the start to end, also we will include the following topics:

1.    The Dark Ages starts from (3000 B.C To 1890 A.D).

2.    The middle ages start from (1890 A.D To 1944 A.D.).

3.    The Modern Ages starts from (from Since 1944).

## Computer history starts from About 3000 B.C.

### The Abacus” was developed probably in China.

#### 1-Computer History Starts with The Dark Ages (3000 B.C.- 1890 A.D).

This is the simplest manual device, which consists of a frame with beads strung on wires or rods. Arithmetic calculations are performed by manipulating the beads.

In fact, the Abacus is a Very fast calculating device. By which an operator can calculate faster than a person using a digital calculator.

Similarly, in 1917: John Napier designed a device, called “Napier’s bones”. This device contains a set of eleven bones or rods with numbers marked on them.

By placing these rods side by side, products and quotients of large numbers can be obtained very easily.

Seems like, In1632: Another manual mechanical device “Oughtred’s  Slide Rule” was developed.

In this device, a famous English mathematician William Oughtred used Logarithm’s concept.

This device consist of two movable rulers placed side by side and this ruler has proportionally marked distances.

## Pascal’s Calculator.

In 1642: the great French mathematician Blaise Pascal invented a calculator called “Pascal’s Calculator”.

This calculator manipulates numbers by rotating a cogwheel gear by one to ten steps with a carryover ratchet to operate next higher digit.

We can find this technique, even now in automobile odometer which used a series of cogwheels to calculate distance. In  1673: Leibniz much improved Pascal’s calculator.

Such in a way that it could perform multiplication and division.

The first punched card mechanism was invented by a French weaver named Joseph Marie Jacquard,   In 1801:

Therefore, this mechanism is called “Jacquard’s Loom”.

In 1823:  “Babbage’s Difference Engine” was constructed, this is based on some predefined formulae.

This mechanism was used by a number of business organizations.

After ten years Charles Babbage introduced another device called “Babbage’s Analytical Engine”.

Even more, it was 15 feet tall and 20 feet long, consisting of hundreds of hundreds of vertical axis and thousands of wheels of gears.

#### 2-The middle ages of Computer History (1890 A.D – 1944 A.D.)

Furthermore, the compilation of census data was the biggest problem in the middle ages. Dr. Herman Hollerith, a statistician with U.S. Bureau of the census, developed a 3×5 inch punched card to record data.

This also constructed a box to sort data and an electromagnetic counting mechanism to tabularize data.

The 1890 survey was processed in one-fourth time needed for 1880 survey. likewise, in 1908:  Dr. James Powers developed 20- column punching machine. In the same year.

Dr. Herman Hollerith developed vertical sorting machine which can process almost 275 cards per minute until.

Also In 1940:  there was no major invention, but performance, speed, and capabilities of existing machines were improved.

Some other the development of supporting devices, which assist the main punched card machines.

Such as the verifiers, these can verify inputted or outputted data, and the collators.

Which can merge a deck off the sorted punched card into another sorted deck?

Some other electro-mechanical accounting machines were developed.

Which could read cards containing both alphabetic and numeric data, perform simple arithmetic operations and print the result?

#### 3-The Modern Ages  in Computer History (Since 1944)

Finally, In 1944: an electro-mechanical computer “ Mark-l” was built by IBM (International Business Machines) Corporation. IBM launched its new version as “Mark-II” Afterward fully electronic computers were developed.

### Computer History  AT A GLANCE.

 AGES/ GENERATIONS DEVELOPMENT FEATURE INVENTION INVENTOR COUNTRY OF ORIGINS DARK AGES Abacus came into use for calculation purposes. China and other Oriental countries 5000 BC-1890 AD Record keeping began. Double Entry System of  accounting was developed Greek and Roman Empires 1617 AD Napier’s Bons John Napier 1632 AD Slide Rule William Oughtred 1642 AD Mechanical calculating Machine Blaise Pascal 1801 AD Jacquard,s  Loom Jacquard 1843 AD Analytical Engine (The First complete computer) Charies Babbage (The Father of Computers

### MIDDLE AGES 1890- 1943

 1890 AD Punched Cards were used Herman Hollerith 1908 AD 20 Column Punched Card Developed James Power 1908-43 AD Speed & processing capabilities improved Verifies, Calculators and card readers introduced 1937-38 AD ABC Computer (First Proto type computer was introduced) Atanasoof & Clifford Berry 1940- 41 AD First General purpose computer introduced John Mauchly & Eckert

### MODERN AGE 1943 – to date

 1943 Mark-I Digital Computer that used Electro Magnetic Relays Howard Aiken 1946 AD ENIAC the first electronic general-purpose computer that used Vacuum Tube , John Mauchly & Eckert 1949 AD EDSAC first computer that used Stored Programs John Von Neumann 1951 AD UNVAC first Self Checking computer introduced Mauuchly & Eckert SECOND GENERATION 1959-1971 The Computer became further smaller, and more reliable due to the use of Transistors Transistors are developed by Barden Shockely and Brattain of Bell Laboratories in 1947 THIRD GENERATION 1964-1971 further smaller faster and reliable due to using of Transistors. Integrated Circuits were developed by Fairchild and Kilby in 1955 FORTH GENERATION 1971 to date Micro Processors or Chip brought a further revolution Victor Poor & Tedhoff 1976 AD Apple Micro Computer developed Steve Wozniak & Steve Job 1881-to date Storage devices. optical disks/ CD ROM. Multimedia. Virtual Reality. Virtual, Reality. Internet (world wide web) Communication