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Computer History

In this article, we will learn about Computer history. Where will discuss from the start to end, also we will include the following topics:

1.    The Dark Ages starts from (3000 B.C To 1890 A.D).

2.    The middle ages start from (1890 A.D To 1944 A.D.).

3.    The Modern Ages starts from (from Since 1944).

computer history

Computer history starts from About 3000 B.C.

The Abacus” was developed probably in China.

1-Computer History Starts with The Dark Ages (3000 B.C.- 1890 A.D).

This is the simplest manual device, which consists of a frame with beads strung on wires or rods. Arithmetic calculations are performed by manipulating the beads.

In fact, the Abacus is a Very fast calculating device. By which an operator can calculate faster than a person using a digital calculator.

dark ages

Similarly, in 1917: John Napier designed a device, called “Napier’s bones”. This device contains a set of eleven bones or rods with numbers marked on them.

By placing these rods side by side, products and quotients of large numbers can be obtained very easily.

Seems like, In1632: Another manual mechanical device “Oughtred’s  Slide Rule” was developed.

In this device, a famous English mathematician William Oughtred used Logarithm’s concept.

This device consist of two movable rulers placed side by side and this ruler has proportionally marked distances.

Pascal’s Calculator.

In 1642: the great French mathematician Blaise Pascal invented a calculator called “Pascal’s Calculator”.

This calculator manipulates numbers by rotating a cogwheel gear by one to ten steps with a carryover ratchet to operate next higher digit.


We can find this technique, even now in automobile odometer which used a series of cogwheels to calculate distance. In  1673: Leibniz much improved Pascal’s calculator.

Such in a way that it could perform multiplication and division.

The first punched card mechanism was invented by a French weaver named Joseph Marie Jacquard,   In 1801:

Therefore, this mechanism is called “Jacquard’s Loom”.

 In 1823:  “Babbage’s Difference Engine” was constructed, this is based on some predefined formulae.

This mechanism was used by a number of business organizations.

After ten years Charles Babbage introduced another device called “Babbage’s Analytical Engine”.

Even more, it was 15 feet tall and 20 feet long, consisting of hundreds of hundreds of vertical axis and thousands of wheels of gears.

2-The middle ages of Computer History (1890 A.D – 1944 A.D.)

Furthermore, the compilation of census data was the biggest problem in the middle ages. Dr. Herman Hollerith, a statistician with U.S. Bureau of the census, developed a 3×5 inch punched card to record data.

This also constructed a box to sort data and an electromagnetic counting mechanism to tabularize data.

The 1890 survey was processed in one-fourth time needed for 1880 survey. likewise, in 1908:  Dr. James Powers developed 20- column punching machine. In the same year.

middle age

Dr. Herman Hollerith developed vertical sorting machine which can process almost 275 cards per minute until.

Also In 1940:  there was no major invention, but performance, speed, and capabilities of existing machines were improved.

Some other the development of supporting devices, which assist the main punched card machines.

Such as the verifiers, these can verify inputted or outputted data, and the collators.

Which can merge a deck off the sorted punched card into another sorted deck?

Some other electro-mechanical accounting machines were developed.

Which could read cards containing both alphabetic and numeric data, perform simple arithmetic operations and print the result?

3-The Modern Ages  in Computer History (Since 1944)

Finally, In 1944: an electro-mechanical computer “ Mark-l” was built by IBM (International Business Machines) Corporation. IBM launched its new version as “Mark-II” Afterward fully electronic computers were developed.

middle age

          Computer History  AT A GLANCE.







DARK AGES Abacus came into use

for calculation purposes.

China and

other Oriental countries


BC-1890 AD

Record keeping began.

Double Entry

System of  accounting was developed

Greek and Roman Empires
1617 AD Napier’s Bons John Napier
1632 AD Slide Rule William Oughtred
1642 AD Mechanical calculating Machine Blaise Pascal
1801 AD Jacquard,s  Loom Jacquard
1843 AD Analytical Engine (The First complete computer) Charies Babbage (The Father of Computers

                        MIDDLE AGES 1890- 1943

1890 AD Punched Cards

were used

Herman Hollerith
1908 AD 20 Column

Punched Card Developed

James Power
1908-43 AD Speed & processing capabilities

improved Verifies,

Calculators and

card readers introduced

1937-38 AD ABC Computer

(First Proto type

computer was introduced)

Atanasoof & Clifford Berry
1940- 41 AD First General purpose

computer introduced

John Mauchly & Eckert

                        MODERN AGE 1943 – to date

1943 Mark-I Digital Computer

that used

Electro Magnetic Relays

Howard Aiken

the first electronic



that used Vacuum Tube

, John Mauchly & Eckert

first computer

that used

Stored Programs

John Von Neumann

first Self Checking computer


Mauuchly & Eckert



The Computer


further smaller, and

more reliable

due to the use of Transistors


are developed by Barden

Shockely and Brattain

of Bell Laboratories in 1947




further smaller

faster and reliable

due to using of Transistors.

Integrated Circuits

were developed by

Fairchild and Kilby in 1955


GENERATION 1971 to date

Micro Processors or Chip

brought a further revolution

Victor Poor & Tedhoff
1976 AD Apple

Micro Computer




& Steve Job

1881-to date  Storage devices.

optical disks/ CD ROM.


Virtual Reality.

Virtual, Reality.

Internet (world wide web)


Computer Definition.

What is Information technology (IT)?

Computer Generations.

The Classification of Computer Type.

Classification of computer according to size.

Input Devices.

Output Devices.

Primary Storage Devices.

Secondary Storage Devices.

Application Software.

System Software.

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About imran

My Name Mohammad Ramzan Bhutto. Live in District Jacobabad, Sindh, Pakistan. I have started blogging on Information Technology, my selected areas are Online Business, Digital Marketing, Make Money Online.

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